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by Juan Bisquert, Emilio Juárez-Pérez and Prashant V. Kamat
Also referring to FIG. 3, the present embodiment provides a series of processes for fabricating the QDSSC. First, step 300 is performed to fabricate a TiO2 semiconductor electrode 206 on transparent conducting oxide glass. In step 302 , quantum dots 208 are coated on the semiconductor electrode 206 using a sequential ion layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) process. In step 304 , the quantum dot coated semiconductor electrode layer 212 is assembled with a cathode 106 into a solar cell. In step 306 , an electrolyte 104 is injected into the assembled solar cell through two predrilled holes on the cathode 106 . In step 308 , measurements are carried out to study the photovoltaic performance, including photocurrent, voltage and power conversion efficiency, of the fabricated QDSSC 100 .
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Peptides are being researched as potential quantum dot material.  Since peptides occur naturally in all organisms, such dots would likely be nontoxic and easily biodegraded.