Pier Vittorio Mannucci - PhD 2016 ,
Organisations and Human Resources
Assistant Professor, London Business School (UK)
The habilitation teaching qualification ( facultas docendi or "faculty to teach") under a university procedure with a thesis and an exam is commonly regarded as belonging to this category in Germany , Austria , France , Liechtenstein , Switzerland , Poland , etc. The degree developed in Germany in the 19th century "when holding a doctorate seemed no longer sufficient to guarantee a proficient transfer of knowledge to the next generation."  The habilitation results in an award of a formal "Dr. habil." degree or the holder of the degree may add "habil." to his research doctorate such as "Dr. phil. habil." or "Dr. rer. nat. habil." In some European universities, especially in German -speaking countries, the degree is insufficient to have teaching duties without professor supervision (or to teach and supervise . students independently) without an additional instructor/teaching certificate/license, such as Privatdozent . In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe , the degree gives the venia legendi , Latin for "permission for lecturing," or the ius docendi , "right of teaching" a specific academic subject at universities for a lifetime. The French academic system used to have a higher doctorate, called "State doctorate" ( doctorat d'État ), but it was superseded by the habilitation ( Habilitation à diriger des recherches , "accreditation to supervise research", abbreviated HDR) in 1984.
PhD in Economics . PhD students take 16 courses, roughly half of which are spent acquiring the core analytic tools of the profession (microeconomics, macroeconomics, and quantitative methods), with the balance spent applying those tools in particular fields of specialization. All PhD students must complete a doctoral dissertation ( thesis ).
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In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students . In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government. Independence was high, but funding was low. The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1919. Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals. " Publish or perish " became the formula for faculty advancement in the research universities. After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading to masters or doctorate degrees. Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities. 
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